比特幣相關犯罪類型與因應作為之探討

A Study on Bitcoin-related Crime and Countermeasures

 

施志鴻

中央警察大學刑事警察學系

桃園市龜山區大崗村樹人路56

una171@mail.cpu.edu.tw

 

摘要

2015920日一名香港商人在遭到綁架,綁匪透過境外IP電子郵件要求贖金,並以人力往返香港、傳遞訊息等手段規避查緝,最後要求家屬在香港以七仟萬港幣購買比特幣以支付贖金,警方雖在取得贖金前鎖定嫌犯,順利攻堅救出被害人,但以比特幣此種「密碼貨幣」作為犯罪工具的手法,已逐漸成為犯罪者所利用,亦對警方偵查犯罪形成新的挑戰。本文介紹比特幣之特性,並歸納出「比特幣詐騙」、「比特幣竊盜」、「被害支付」、「買賣非法物品交易」、「洗錢」等五種與比特幣相關的犯罪類型,並針對國內已偵破之比特幣三則犯罪案件進行案例分析,提出比特幣相關犯罪之整體因應架構,作為我國政應與執法機關因應相關虛擬貨幣之參考。

 

關鍵詞:比特幣、網路犯罪、虛擬貨幣

 

Abstract

On September 20, 2005, a Hong Kong businessman was abducted. The kidnappers requested for bitcoin ransom (70 million HK dollars) through email from Taiwan IP address. The police had arrested the suspects and rescued the victim before the victim’s family paid the ransom. Cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, has gradually adopted by criminals, and it has posed a challenge to the process of criminal investigation. This paper introduced the characteristics of bitcoin and concluded the following five types of bitcoin-related crime: bitcoin scams, bitcoin theft, bitcoin as ransom payment, bitcoin for illegal service, and money laundering. This paper further analyzed three bitcoin-related crimes and proposed some strategies to fight against bitcoin-related crime for law enforcement agencies.

 

Keywords: Bitcoin, Internet Crime, Virtual Currency